Efficiency The classic reason given for creating an FGC instead of an agency, one echoed in the Vice President's proposals, is that an FGC will be more efficient at achieving a specific national goal, especially if the program envisioned involves market transactions. The national goal is ordinarily stated in the FGC's charter. Thus, the Farm Credit System, for example, exists to improve "the income and well-being of American farmers and ranchers by furnishing sound, adequate and constructive credit and closely related services.
To preserve our independence, we must not let our rulers load us with public debt. If we run into such debts, we must be taxed in our meat and drink, in our necessities and comforts, in our labor and in our amusements.
If we can prevent the government from wasting the labor of the Effect of government debt on incentives for money creation, under the pretense of caring for them, they will be happy.
The debt has reached 98 percent of U. Every dollar borrowed by the United States government, and the real resources that dollar represents in the market place, is a dollar of real resources not available for use in private sector investment, capital formation, consumer spending, and therefore increases and improvements in the quality and standard of living of the American people.
What has made this less visible and less obvious to the American citizenry is precisely because it has been financed through government borrowing rather than government taxation.
Deficit spending easily creates the illusion that something can be had for nothing. Yet, whether acquired by taxing or borrowing, the resulting total government expenditures represent the real resources and the private sector consumption or investment spending those resources could have financed that must be foregone.
And given current projections by the Congressional Budget Office, the deficits are projected to continue indefinitely into future years and decade, with the cumulative national debt nearly doubling from its present level.
By some measures of the money supply, the monetary aggregates MZM or M-2 grew by fifty percent or more between and This massive flooding of the financial markets with huge amounts of liquidity provided the funds that fed the mortgage, investment, and consumer debt bubbles in the first decade of this century.
Interest rates were pushed far below any historical levels. For a good part of those five years, according to the St. In other words, the Federal Reserve supplied so much money to the banking sector that banks were lending money to each other for free for a good part of this time.
It is no wonder that related market interest rates were also pushed way down during this period. Like any other price on the market, interest rates are suppose to balance the decision of income earners to save a portion of their income with the desire of others to borrow that savings for various investment and other purposes.
In addition, the rates of interest, through the present value factor, are meant to limit investment time horizons undertaken within the available savings to successfully bring the investments to completion and sustainability in the longer-term. To attract people to take out loans, banks not only lowered interest rates and therefore the cost of borrowingthey also lowered their standards for credit worthiness.
The fears were soothed by the fact that housing prices kept climbing as home buyers pushed them higher and higher with all of that newly created Federal Reserve money.
With interest rates so low, there was little incentive to save for tomorrow and big incentives to borrow and consume today. But, according to the U. Census Bureau, during this five-year period average real income only increased by at the most 2 percent. The Federal Reserve has dramatically increased its balance sheet by expanding its holding of U.
The monetary aggregates, MZM and M-2, respectively, have grown by 28 percent and In real terms, the federal funds rate and the 1-year Treasury yield have been in the negative range since the last quarter ofand at the current time is estimated to be below minus two percent.
This has prevented interest rates from informing market transactors what the real savings conditions are in the economy. So, once again, the availability of savings and the real cost of borrowing is difficult to discern so as to make reasonable and rational investment decisions, and not to foster a new wave of misdirected and unsustainable private sector investment and financial decisions.
The housing market has not been allowed to fully adjust, either. With so much of the mortgage-backed securities being held off the market in the portfolio of the Federal Reserve, there is little way to determine any real market-based pricing to determine their worth or their total availability so the housing market can finally bottom out with clearer information of supply and demand conditions for a sustainable recovery.
This misguided Fed policy has been, in my view, a primary factor behind the slow and sluggish recovery of the United States economy out of the current recession. Federal Reserve Policy and Monetizing the Debt Many times in history, governments have used their power over the monetary printing press to create the funds needed to cover their expenses in excess of taxes collected.
Sometimes this has lead to social and economic catastrophes. Since the early to the present, Federal Reserve holdings of U. Treasuries, potentially increases the amount of reserves in the banking system available for lending.
That the money multiplier effect has not been as great as it might have been, so far, is because the Federal Reserve has been paying interest to member banks to not lend their excess reserves. This uncertainty concerns the future direction of government monetary and fiscal policy.
In an economic climate in which it difficult to anticipate the future tax structure, the likely magnitude of future government borrowing, and the impact of new government programs, hesitancy exists on the part of both borrowers and lenders to take on new commitments.
But the monetary expansion has most certainly has been the factor behind the worsening problem of rising prices in the U.Evaluating Fiscal Policy.
Examples may include passing a new spending bill that promotes a certain cause, such as green technology, or the creation of a federal jobs program. and the amount of fiat money in circulation is exactly the government debt – money spent but not collected in taxes.
practice exam 3. STUDY. PLAY. When money is used to set the value of goods such as cars, DVDs, and TVs, money is serving as a: The key to understanding the money creation process is the fact that: c.
government debt owed by one branch of the government to another. A public debt overhang is an episode where the gross public debt/ GDP ratio exceeds 90 percent for five years or more.
This ratio of debt/GDP holds for other kinds of debt too such as private-, external- and pension-debt.
The government has introduced investment incentives to attract mutual funds and foreign portfolio investors that have energized emerging stock markets elsewhere in the developing world.
By law, Namibia’s government pension fund and other Namibian funds are required to allocate a certain percentage of their holdings to Namibian investments.
Time can be gained by borrowing or printing money, but other countries will eventually stop accepting the nation’s debt—whether it is in the form of government bonds or in the form of fiat currency.
Including the effect of these assumptions on federal net interest payments, federal debt as a share of GDP bottoms out at about 14 percent (see Figure 1). Under this scenario, the Treasury debt market remains barely liquid enough to avoid making significant procedural changes to .